Saturday, 9 December 2017
What Role for Social Sciences in Innovation? Re-Assessing How Scientific Disciplines Contribute to Different Industries | OECD STI Policy Paper
What Role for Social Sciences in Innovation? Re-Assessing How Scientific Disciplines Contribute to Different Industries
by Caroline Paunov, Sandra Planes-Satorra, Tadanori Moriguchi; OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Paper No. 45, 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/
Abstract: Knowledge transfer between industry and science is fundamental to innovation. There are important differences across scientific disciplines and sectors of activity in that, for instance, the financial and pharmaceutical sectors have different demands for science inputs. This paper reviews the data sources and associated methodologies available to measure different types of science-industry interaction. It applies these insights to re-assess the contributions of social sciences to industry and the disciplinary needs of the ICT sector. The paper finds that commonly used methodologies fail to shed light on a number of important industry-science interaction channels, and introduce biases in assessing connections. Using new evidence from labour force and university graduate surveys can help to some extent. The paper shows how these additional data allow to better capture the contributions of social scientists and the complexity of disciplinary demands of the digital economy. However, new data sources and methods should be further explored.
Keywords: Review of data sources and associated methodologies, knowledge transfer, innovation, social sciences, industry sectors, Science-industry linkages, academic disciplines, information and communication technologies (ICT)
Wednesday, 6 December 2017
A Brief History of Tuberculosis Control in India.
by World Health Organization, 2010, ISBN 9789241500159. «WHO/HTM/TB/2010.4»
Summary: This report was prepared as part of a World Health Organization (WHO) project funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to review the history of tuberculosis (TB) control in India, to assess the impact of the TB programme on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in India, and to outline directions for future progress.
In 2006, the population of India was 1.1 billion or 17% of the world's population. The country is divided into 35 states and union territories (UTs) which are subdivided into over 600 districts (1, 2). India has 299 people living with TB per 100 000 population or 3.4 million prevalent cases (1). Every year, 2 million people develop TB and 331 000 die due to TB (1).
The National TB Programme (NTP) was launched by the Government of India in 1961. In order to deal with some of the shortcomings of the NTP highlighted by the 1992 Joint Review by the Government of India, the Swedish International Development Agency and WHO, the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) was established in 1993 and the new programme, based on DOTS – the internationally-recommended strategy to control TB, was launched in 1997 (3).
The RNTCP included flexible funding mechanisms, decentralization, an ensured supply of quality-assured drugs at all times, better supervision, monitoring and evaluation, and technical support via a country-wide network of consultants. By 2006, the whole country was covered under the RNTCP, and case detection and treatment success rates had improved significantly.
The challenge is now to sustain the existing DOTS-based programme while introducing all components of the new Stop TB strategy, including services to address TB/HIV, treatment for multidrug-resistant TB, strengthening laboratory services, and integrating TB services in all health facilities of both the public and private health-care sectors. The effectiveness of the TB control programme is likely to increase further with the focussed efforts being undertaken by the Government of India in strengthening the primary health-care system under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).
An estimated 2.5 million adults, or 0.4% of the adult population, are infected with HIV (4), but rates of infection are higher in four southern states, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, and within these states the distribution of infection is uneven (5). In a community-based prevalence survey in 15 districts, the prevalence of HIV among TB cases ranged from 1% to 14% (6). Although the HIV epidemic in India appears to have stabilized, HIV-associated TB continues to be an important challenge (7).
Based largely on a survey in Gujarat (8), 3.9% (4.9−6.2%; ranges are 95% confidence limits unless otherwise stated) of all TB cases have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), giving over 130 000 new cases every year (9). To manage MDR-TB will require a substantial increase in diagnostic and treatment capacity.
India has reached the target treatment success rate of 85% and the target case detection rate of 70%. Over the next few years, routine notification data supplemented by prevalence surveys may be used to determine the impact of TB control.
India is in a position to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 and Stop TB Partnership targets by 2015 but this will require increases in funding and human resources, more intensive engagement with all health-care providers and strengthened regulation of anti-TB drugs.
Table of Contents
1. TB control before 19932. The Indian health-care system3. The Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP)4. Scaling up DOTS: 1998–20065. The Stop TB Strategy 2006–20086. The way forward: 2009–20157. Health systems8. Conclusion
Monday, 4 December 2017
New Book | Science Diplomacy: India and the World, Global Science Cooperation Opportunities | by Dr Pawan Sikka
Science Diplomacy: India and the World, Global Science Cooperation Opportunities
edited by Pawan Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059752.
About the Book
Science Diplomacy, in the age of the accelerating science and technology is increasingly becoming a central element of the foreign policy and a soft power. This book, Science Diplomacy: India and the World: Global Science Cooperation Opportunities, points out that science is now becoming even more critical in the complex international relations while addressing global challenges such as Climate Change, Nuclear and Renewable Energy, Natural Catastrophize, Diseases and Disaster Mitigation etc. It Covers: Science, Technology & Innovation in India; National Policy of India on International Science Cooperation; India's Engagement with the World; Science Diplomacy and Diplomacy for Science; Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement; lndo-US Nuclear Energy Deal; FDI and technology transfer; Make in India and Intellectual Property Rights etc. India should create a crop of Science-Diplomats in foreign service to get advantage of the World Science. It is a FIRST book of its kind and is a useful one for the science policy-planners, researchers and readers and students of political science, International relations, foreign affairs etc. A must for the libraries in India and abroad.
About the Author
Dr. Pawan Sikka (b. 1944) is a former Scientist-G, Advisor, Government of India, Department of Science and Technology (Ministry of Science and Technology) New Delhi. Prior to it as Director (International Relations) for about 7-8 years, he coordinated the Bilateral and Multi-lateral programmes of Iwo international cooperation towards extending the frontiers of new and emerging fields in science and technology. He was Leader of the Indian delegation to SAARC Group Meeting on Science and Technology at Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 1995. He has received his M.Sc., Ph.D. as well as, D.Sc. degrees in Physics. He is recipient of the Commonwealth Visiting Fellowship (1984-85), at the University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K for carrying out Science & Technology Policy and Society and Government related studies, to shape the national and international development agenda. He also received Italian, Sweden, Switzerland, UNESCO, etc. scholarships for understanding the progress of science, technology and industry there. He is a well-read author and widely travelled in India and abroad. He has also delivered special lectures on Science Policy related issues to the M.Phil. and Ph.D. students at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is a Life-Member of the: Materials Research Society of India, Semi-Conductor Society of India, Association of British Scholars (British Council, New Delhi), and Oxford and Cambridge Society of India.
Tuesday, 21 November 2017
World Intellectual Property Report 2017: Intangible Capital in Global Value Chains
by World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, 2017, ISBN: 9789280528954.
About the Report
The World Intellectual Property Report 2017 examines the crucial role of intangibles such as technology, design and branding in international manufacturing. Macroeconomic analysis is complemented by case studies of the global value chains for three products – coffee, photovoltaic energy cells and smartphones – to give an insightful picture of the importance of intellectual property and other intangibles in modern production.
Foreword | by Francis Gurry, Director General, WIPO
Technological innovations and openness of trade have profoundly changed the face of global production. Converting raw materials into parts and components, assembling final products and delivering them to the end consumer involves supply chains that span an increasing number of economies across the globe.
The emergence of these so-called global value chains has been a force for good: they have made a large range of consumer products more affordable, stimulated economic growth and promoted the integration of developing countries into the global economy – creating opportunities for economic development and the alleviation of poverty.
Intangible capital – notably in the form of technology, design and branding – permeates global value chains in important ways. It accounts for a good part of what consumers pay for in a product and determines which companies are successful in the marketplace. It also lies at the heart of the organization of global value chains: decisions on where to locate different production tasks and with whom to partner are closely tied to how companies manage their intangible capital.
A large number of research reports have been published on the causes and consequences of the rise of global value chains, and many of these reports have acknowledged the key role played by intangible capital. However, few insights are available on why, how and how much. With our World Intellectual Property Report 2017, we hope to help unpack the intangibles black box, in particular by shedding light on how intellectual property (IP) fits into this box.
The report begins by reviewing how global value chains have come about and how they are organized. Against this background, it reveals new estimates of the macroeconomic contribution of intangible capital to global value chain production. These estimates show that intangibles account for around one-third of production value – or some 5.9 trillion United States dollars in 2014 – across 19 manufacturing industries.
Following the approach of our 2015 report, we complement these economy-wide perspectives with case studies of specific global value chains – namely, coffee, photovoltaics and smartphones. These three cases highlight the different mix of intangibles embedded in different consumer products and provide concrete insight into the role that different forms of IP play in generating returns to investments in innovation and branding. In addition, they explore how developing economies – notably China – have succeeded in participating in global value chains by building their own intangibles, and what opportunities may exist to pursue similar strategies in the future.
The evolution of global value chains has been disruptive, with some companies thriving and others failing. It has accelerated the structural transformation of economies, with some workers losing their jobs and others seeing their skills richly rewarded. Technology continues to transform global patterns of production and is bound to lead to further disruption. For example, advances in 3D printing, robotics and automated manufacturing may well lead companies to relocate certain production tasks closer to the end consumer. In addition, the fast growth of emerging economies is set to prompt shifts in the geography of global value chains.
Policymakers need to respond to the disruptive forces unleashed by globalized production. Global value chains are a human creation and could be reversed, but this would risk even bigger disruption. Shaping them in such a way that they benefit societies as a whole is thus an important policy imperative.
As always, a report of this nature leaves important questions open. Most importantly, while we present – for the first time – concrete estimates of how much income accrues to intangibles in global value chain production, it remains to be established who ultimately gains this income. At the level of countries, cross-border ownership and sharing of intangible assets make it difficult to associate assets and earnings with a particular country location. At the level of individual earnings, little systematic evidence exists on how intangibles affect the compensation of workers at different skills levels. Future research that offers empirical guidance on these questions would be of great value.
We hope that this report will inform discussions on the evolving nature of global value chains taking place in different policy forums, and look forward to exploring the contribution of the IP system to global value chain production in our ongoing dialogue with Member States.
Table of contents
Chapter 1: IP and other intangibles add twice as much value to products as tangible capital
Chapter 2: Intangibles are key to seizing new opportunities in the coffee market
Chapter 3: Innovation is transforming the photovoltaic industry
Chapter 4: Success in the smartphone industry is based on intangibles
Saturday, 18 November 2017
India as a Pioneer of Innovation
Edited by Harbir Singh, Ananth Padmanabhan, and Ezekiel Emanuel, Oxford University Press, 2017, ISBN: 9780199476084.
What does innovation mean to and in India? What are the predominant sites of activity where Indians innovate, and under what situations do they work or fail? This book addresses these all-important questions arising within diverse Indian contexts: informal economy, low-cost settings, large business groups, entertainment and copyright industries, an evolving pharma sector, a poorly organized and appallingly underfunded public health system, social enterprises for the urban poor, and innovations-for-the-millions. Its balanced perspective on India's promises and failings makes it a valuable addition for those who believe that India's future banks heavily on its ability to leapfrog using innovation, as well as those sceptical of the Indian state's belief in the potential of private enterprise and innovation. It also provides critical insights on innovation in general, the most important of which being the highly context-specific, context-driven character of the innovation project.
Offers insights on diverse contexts across which innovation happens in India, including business, health, policy, entertainment, and the informal economy.
Discusses how traditional notions of innovation have been reshaped in the Indian context.
Includes contributions from experts across various fields.
Table of Contents
1: Historical Perspectives on Innovation in Indian Business, Claude Markovits
2: Innovation in the Informal Economy of Mofussil India, Barbara Harris-White
4: Innovation in Indian Business Groups, Prashant Kale and Harbir Singh
5: From 'Pharmacy' to 'Laboratory': The Global Biologics Revolution and the Indian Bio-Pharmaceutical Industry, Chirantan Chatterjee and Shreekanth Mahendiran
6: Fair Use and Fair Dealing: Two Approaches to Limitations and Exceptions in Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh and David Nimmer
7: Innovations in the Organisation of Public Health Services for Rural and Remote Parts of India, Sundararaman Thiagarajan and Rajani Ved
8: India as a Hub of Innovation for the Millions (I4M), Vijay Mahajan
9: Market-Based Solutions for Poverty Reduction in India, Brian English
Friday, 27 October 2017
A Biography of Innovations: From Birth to Maturity
by R. Gopalakrishnan, Penguin India, 2017, ISBN 9780670089895.
R. Gopalakrishnan, the bestselling author of The Case of the Bonsai Manager, explores how concepts turn into ideas, which then become prototypes, models and products. Defining thought as the ancestor of innovation; as without thought, there could be no innovation, he explores the impending questions such as - What happens next? How can you take on challenges and keep your ideas relevant? The Biography of Innovation is the definitive book on the life cycle of new ideas and transformations.
About the Author
R. Gopalakrishnan has been a professional manager for forty-two years. He has a wealth of practical managerial experience, initially in Unilever and more recently in Tata. He has lived and worked in India, the UK and Saudi Arabia, and has travelled extensively all over the world. He began his career in 1967 as a computer analyst with Hindustan Lever after studying physics in Kolkata and electronic engineering at IIT Kharagpur. He has attended the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School. He worked initially in computer software, later in marketing, before moving to general management. During his Unilever career, he was based in Jeddah as chairman of the Arabian subsidiary; later, he was managing director, Brooke Bond Lipton India and then vice chairman of Hindustan Lever. He has been president of the All India Management Association. Currently, he is executive director, Tata Sons, based in Mumbai. He also serves on the boards of other companies. He is married with three children.
Sunday, 22 October 2017
New Books in National Policy of India Series
Education and Human Resource Development: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059592.
About the Book: The essence of Human Resource Development is education, which plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of the country. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains legislative measures and national programmes towards creating a better India enacted in the field of Human Resource Development. For the first time, to fulfill the long-felt need of the students, researchers, policy-planners, civil servants, administrators, this book is being brought out as a ready reference material, to be used alongwith the existing textbooks on public policy and administration.
Women Empowerment: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059608.
About the Book: The policies/ programmes of the Government of India are all directed towards achieving inclusive growth with a special focus on women, in line with the National Policy for essence of Empowerment of Women. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains legislative measures and national programmes towards creating a better India.
Social Justice, Health and Empowerment: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059677.
About the Book: This book, towards building a better India, incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India.
Child Development: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059691.
About the Book: National Policy for Children, adopted by the Government of India in 2013, reaffirms the rights of children in the country. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains special legislative measures, national policies and programmes towards creating a better India.
Upliftment of Minorities: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059684.
About the Book: The Government of India has made concerted efforts for the past six decades of so towards the educational development and employment and empowerment of the weaker sections of the society to enable them to join the mainstream of the socio-economic development. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains special legislative measures, national policies and programmes towards creating a better India.